Multimeric Protein Toxins to Target Cells Having Multiple Identifying Characteristics

This technology relates to multimeric bacterial protein toxins which can be used to specifically target cells. Specifically, this is a modified recombinant anthrax toxin protective antigen (PrAg) that has been modified in several ways. First, the PrAg can be activated both by a metalloproteinase (MMP) and by urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). Second, the native PrAg lethal factor (LF) binding site has been modified so that only a modified PrAg comprising two different monomers can bind anthrax LF.

Haplotypes of Human Bitter Taste Receptor Genes

Bitter taste has evolved in mammals as a crucial, important warning signal against ingestion of poisonous or toxic compounds. However, many beneficial compounds are also bitter, and taste masking of bitter tasting pharmaceutical compounds is a billion dollar industry. The diversity of compounds that elicit bitter-taste sensations is very large and more than two dozen members of the T2R bitter taste receptor family have been identified. Individuals are now known to be genetically predisposed to respond or not to respond to the bitter taste of a number of substances.

Cannula for Pressure Mediated Drug Delivery

Available for licensing are methods and devices for selectively delivering therapeutic substances to specific histological or microanatomical areas of organs (e.g., introduction of the therapeutic substance into a hollow organ space such as the hepatobiliary duct or the gallbladder lumen) at a controlled pressure, volume and/or rate which allows the substance to reach a predetermined cellular layer.

Hybrid Adeno-Retroviral Vector for the Transformation of Cells (E-258-1998)

The invention described and claimed in this patent application provides for novel hybrid vectors which may be used for cell transformation, either in vivo or in vitro. The hybrid vectors have an adenoviral backbone with retroviral long terminal repeats (LTRs). Such vectors are capable of transforming dividing or non-dividing cells and integrate stably into the chromosome providing a means of efficient, reliable, long-term gene expression. The vector was packaged as a recombinant adenovirus and delivered to the target cell.

Method for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

The invention relates to the discovery that humanized antibodies to the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) such as (daclizumab) are effective in treating multiple sclerosis (MS). In particular, it has been discovered that patients who have failed to respond to therapy with interferon-beta show dramatic improvement when treated with daclizumab, with patients showing both a reduction in the total number of lesions and cessation of appearance of new lesions during the treatment period. Daclizumab is effective both in combination with interferon-beta and alone.

Multipotent Postnatal Stem Cells From Human Periodontal Ligament and Uses Thereof

It is estimated that over 40 percent of the adult population in the United States has periodontal disease in one form or another. Periodontal Disease is a chronic infection of the periodontal ligament (PDL) and the adjacent bone and cementum. The effects of Periodontal Disease range from simple gum inflammation to, in extreme cases, tooth loss.

Activation of Recombinant Diphtheria Toxin Fusion Proteins by Specific Proteases Highly Expressed on the Surface of Tumor Cells

This invention relates to diphtheria toxin fusion proteins comprising a diphtheria toxin (DT) cell-killing component and a cell-binding component such as granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 2 (IL-2), or epidermal growth factor (EGF). Receptors for the latter three materials are present on many types of cancer cells; therefore, these fusion proteins bind preferentially to these cancer cells. A key feature is that these toxins are altered so as to require activation by a cell-surface protease that is overexpressed on many types of cancers.

Cloning and Characterization of an Avian Adeno-Associated Virus and Uses Thereof

Currently, adeno-associated virus (AAV) represents the gene therapy vehicle of choice because it has many advantages over current strategies for therapeutic gene insertion. AAV is less pathogenic than other virus types; stably integrates into dividing and non-dividing cells; integrates at a consistent site in the host genome; and shows good specificity towards various cell types for targeted gene delivery.

Pain Control by the Selective Local Ablation of Nociceptive Neurons

The vanilloid receptor (VR) is a cation channel predominantly expressed on the peripheral processes and perikarya of nociceptive primary afferent neurons. Previous studies have shown that activation of the peripheral receptors by agonists such as capsaicin from hot peppers, or the much more potent resiniferatoxin, produces acute pain sensation which may be followed by desensitization. These inventors discovered that administration of VR agonists in the vicinity of neuronal cell bodies expressing the VR receptor can actually destroy those cells.

Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Taste Receptor

Bitter taste has evolved in mammals as a central warning signal against ingestion of poisonous or toxic compounds. However, many beneficial compounds are also bitter and taste masking of bitter tasting pharmaceutical compounds is a billion dollar industry. The diversity of compounds that elicit bitter-taste sensations is vast and more than two dozen members of the TAS2R bitter taste receptor gene family have been identified.