Multipotent Postnatal Stem Cells From Human Periodontal Ligament and Uses Thereof

It is estimated that over 40 percent of the adult population in the United States has periodontal disease in one form or another. Periodontal Disease is a chronic infection of the periodontal ligament (PDL) and the adjacent bone and cementum. The effects of Periodontal Disease range from simple gum inflammation to, in extreme cases, tooth loss.

Methanocarba Cycloalkyl Nucleoside Analogues

Purines such as adenosine and ATP have been shown to play a wide array of roles in biological systems such as inter alia, modulator of vasodilation and hypotension, muscle relaxant, central depressant, inhibitor of platelet aggregation, regulator of energy supply/demand, responder to oxygen availability, neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. All P1 and P2 receptor nucleoside ligands suffer from chemical instability that is caused by the labile glycosidic linkage in the sugar moiety of the nucleoside.

Materials And Methods For Detection And Treatment Of Insulin Dependent Diabetes

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) affects close to one million people in the United States. It is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system produces antibodies that attack the body's own insulin-manufacturing cells in the pancreas. Patients require daily injections of insulin to regulate blood sugar levels. The invention identified two proteins, named IA-2 and IA-2beta, that are important markers for type I (juvenile, insulin-dependent) diabetes. IA-2/IA-2beta, when used in diagnostic tests, recognized autoantibodies in 70 percent of IDDM patients.

Novel Tocopherol and Tocopheryl Quinone Derivatives as Therapeutics for Lysosomal Storage Disorders

Novel tocopherol derivatives and tocopheryl quinone derivatives useful in the decrease of lysosomal substrate accumulation, the restoration of normal lysosomal size, and the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are provided. The inventors have discovered that tocopherol and tocopheryl quinone derivatives with side chain modifications (such as terminal tri-halogenated methyl groups) exhibit improved pharmacokinetics, modulation of mitochondrial potential and restoration of some LSDs phenotypes.

Novel Small Molecule Agonists of the Relaxin Receptor as Potential Therapy for Heart Failure and Fibrosis

The present invention is directed to novel small molecule agonists of the mammalian relaxin family receptor 1 (RXFP1), including human RXFP1. Activation of RXFP1 induces: 1) vasodilation due to up-regulation of the endothelin system; 2) extracellular matrix remodeling; 3) moderation of inflammation by reducing levels of inflammatory cytokines; and 4) angiogenesis. Small molecule agonists of RXFP1 may be useful in treating acute heart failure (AHF), scleroderma, fibrosis, other conditions associated with the biology of relaxin, and in improving reproductive health and wound healing.

Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors for the Treatment of Huntington’s Disease

This technology is a collection of small molecules screened for their ability to prevent or reduce the cytotoxic effects of the protein, Huntingtin. Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder due to a dominantly acting expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in exon 1 of the Huntington (HTT) gene resulting in production of the altered (mutant) protein Huntingtin, which has a long chain of polyglutamine (poly Q) attached to the exon 1 encoded protein sequence.

Glucocerebrosidase Activators as a Treatment for Gaucher Disease

This technology is a collection of small molecule activators of a genetically defective version of the enzyme called glucocerebrosidase (GCase), which causes Gaucher disease. Gaucher disease is a rare disease affecting 1 in 40,000 babies born. Ashkenazi Jews of eastern European descent (about 1 in 800 live births) are at particular risk of carrying this genetic defect. It is caused by inherited genetic mutations in the gene that encodes GCase, which result in reduced activity of the enzyme.

Genetic Mutations Associated with Stuttering

NIH investigators, for the first time, identified specific mutations associated with stuttering. These mutations are located within the genes encoding three enzymes, Glc-NAc phosphotransferase catalytic subunit [GNPTAB], Glc-NAc phosphotransferase recognition subunit [GNPTG], and N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphodiester alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase [NAGPA]. Together these constitute the pathway that targets lysosomal enzymes to their proper location.

Tendon Stem Cells

Tendon injuries due to trauma and overuse are common clinical problems that result in significant pain and loss of mobility. Tendon injuries are slow to heal and the healed tendon rarely matches the original in mechanical strength and structural integrity. Due to a limited understanding of basic tendon biology, development of new treatment options for injured tendons has posed significant challenges.

Novel Roles of a DNA Repair Protein, DNA-PKcs, in Obesity, Neurological Function, and Aging

The catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase complex (DNA-PKcs) has been shown to be important in DNA repair and VDJ recombination in lymphocytes. The inventors have discovered that DNA-PKcs also plays novel, important roles in energy regulation and neurological function. The inventors observed that mature DNA-PKcs-deficient mice (also known as SCID mice) have a lower proportion of fat, resist obesity, and have significantly greater physical endurance than wild-type control mice, particularly with increasing age.