Multimeric Protein Toxins to Target Cells Having Multiple Identifying Characteristics

This technology relates to multimeric bacterial protein toxins which can be used to specifically target cells. Specifically, this is a modified recombinant anthrax toxin protective antigen (PrAg) that has been modified in several ways. First, the PrAg can be activated both by a metalloproteinase (MMP) and by urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). Second, the native PrAg lethal factor (LF) binding site has been modified so that only a modified PrAg comprising two different monomers can bind anthrax LF.

Method for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

The invention relates to the discovery that humanized antibodies to the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) such as (daclizumab) are effective in treating multiple sclerosis (MS). In particular, it has been discovered that patients who have failed to respond to therapy with interferon-beta show dramatic improvement when treated with daclizumab, with patients showing both a reduction in the total number of lesions and cessation of appearance of new lesions during the treatment period. Daclizumab is effective both in combination with interferon-beta and alone.

Factors That Bind Intestinal Toxins

This invention discloses and covers polyphenolic compounds that will bind bacterial toxins, methods for the treatment of such infections, specifically Stx-1 toxins from STEC strains of E. coli.

Bacterial infections not only cause disease by their presence but also upon the release of toxins. The common enteric bacteria, E. coli O157:H7 releases such toxins (Stx-1) upon treatment with antibiotics. These toxins, when released into the lumen of the intestinal tract, will cause cellular damage thus increasing the severity of the infection.

Peptides for Treatment of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha Mediated Inflammatory Disease

Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a multifunctional cytokine that mediates inflammation, immune regulation, and cellular proliferation. This cytokine is converted to its active form by TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE). Pathological increases in TNF-alpha activity have been associated with a wide variety of inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. Inhibiting the conversion of TNF-alpha to its active form by inhibiting TACE represents a potential treatment for these diseases.

Signal Transduction Inhibitors Of Allergic Reactions

Allergic reactions affect nearly 40 million persons in the United States. Allergic reactions are due to a sequential interaction beginning with the extracellular aggregation of the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI) followed by intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation which initiates a further cascade of events eventually leading to histamine and cytokine release. The reaction is initiated by Lyn kinase which is pre-associated with the FcepsilonRI.

Diagnostic Assay to Detect Group C Rotavirus in Humans and Animals—Monoclonal Antibody-based ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay)

Rotaviruses cause severe gastroenteritis in humans and animals globally. Currently, there are eight known serogroups (A-H) of rotaviruses. Group C rotavirus (GpC RV) causes sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute diarrhea in children and adults worldwide. GpC RV is also associated with diarrhea in swine. Currently, no simple and reliable diagnostic test exists for GpC RV, so disease prevalence remains unknown.

Chimeric Antibodies Against Hepatitis B e-Antigen

The invention relates to recombinant chimeric rabbit/human monoclonal antibody fragments (Fabs) against hepatitis B Virus e-antigen (HBeAg), notably Fab me6. Viral hepatitis is the seventh leading cause of death worldwide. Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) forms an icosahedral structure containing the viral genome. Both the HBcAg and the HBeAg of interest here are expressed by two different start codons of the viral C gene. Unlike the related HBcAg which activates type 1 T helper (Th1) cells leading to immune attack, the HBeAg activates Th2 cells which promote immune tolerance.

Development of Immune System Tolerance for the Treatment of Autoimmune Disease

The present invention provides a therapeutic method for the treatment of autoimmune or autoinflammatory diseases by first breaking down the dysregulated immune system and then reprogramming the immune system to restore tolerance to the patient's self-antigens by induction of antigen specific regulatory T cells. The inventors have shown that only with the combination of apoptosis, phagocytes, and antigen can antigen-specific regulatory T cells (Treg) cells be optimally generated to develop long-term immune tolerance.

Signatures of Genetic Control in Digestive and Liver Disorders

Our technology describes unique genetic signatures in patients with digestive diseases and liver disorders. Using comprehensive analysis of 735 microRNAs and 19,000 mRNAs, we have identified a unique set of microRNAs and/or mRNAs which predict disease phenotypes in patients with digestive and liver disorders. The identification of such point-of- care genetic signatures is significant for both personalized biomarkers and novel targeted biotherapeutics. These microRNAs and mRNAs function either together or separately thus modulating protein expressions in one or more signaling pathways.

Engineered Anthrax Toxin Variants that Target Cancer

This technology describes the use of novel mutated anthrax protective antigen (PA) protein variants to target tumor cells and tumor vasculature. NIH scientists have engineered two PA variants that selectively complement one another and combine to form active octamers that target tumor cells. This controlled oligomeric activation of the PA proteins makes the likelihood of toxicity to non-tumor cells very low since non-tumor tissue does not express certain cell-surface proteases required to activate the PA variants.