A Mouse Model for Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes affects over 120 million people worldwide (16 million in the US) and is a major health problem with associated health costs estimated at almost $100 billion dollars. Type 2 diabetes affects as many as 10% of the population of the Western World (with 15 million patients in the US alone) and arises from a heterogeneous etiology, with secondary effects from environmental influences. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides and age.

A Mouse Model for Systemic Inflammation in Glucocerebrosidase-Deficient Mice with Minimal Glucosylceramide Storage

Gaucher disease, the most common lysosomal storage disease, is an inherited metabolic disorder in which harmful quantities of the lipid glucocerebroside accumulate in the spleen, liver, lungs, bone marrow and in rare cases in the brain, due to a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (Gba) that catalyses the first step in the biodegradation of glucocerebrosides. Type 1 Gaucher disease is the most common and is distinguished from the other forms of the disease, types 2 and 3, by the lack of neurologic involvement.

Methanocarba Cycloalkyl Nucleoside Analogues

Purines such as adenosine and ATP have been shown to play a wide array of roles in biological systems such as inter alia, modulator of vasodilation and hypotension, muscle relaxant, central depressant, inhibitor of platelet aggregation, regulator of energy supply/demand, responder to oxygen availability, neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. All P1 and P2 receptor nucleoside ligands suffer from chemical instability that is caused by the labile glycosidic linkage in the sugar moiety of the nucleoside.

Vitamin D Receptor Antagonists for Treating Breast Cancer

Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a nuclear receptor that is activated by calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D. It is best known for regulating dietary calcium uptake necessary for bone growth, but it also affects cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, it was thought that treatment with calcitriol or its derivatives could be useful to treat the uncontrolled proliferation typical of cancer cells. However, this approach has been unsuccessful to date because it leads to toxic levels of calcium in the blood.


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel RNA enveloped coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 when the virus enters human airway cells via an ACE2-mediated entry process. This entry pathway is facilitated by the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), which enhances viral attachment to the cell surface. Researchers at NIDDK and NCATS have discovered a collection of FDA-approved drugs that can interfere with the entry of SARS-CoV-2. These drugs can be grouped into three classes based on the distinct steps in the viral entry pathway that they target.

P2Y14 Receptor Antagonists Containing A Biaryl Core

The technology discloses composition of compounds that fully antagonize the human P2Y14 receptor, with moderate affinity with insignificant antagonism of other P2Y receptors. Therefore, they are highly selective P2Y14 receptor antagonists. Even though there is no P2Y14 receptor modulators in clinical use currently, selective P2Y14 receptor antagonists are sought as potential therapeutic treatments for asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammation and possibly diabetes and neurodegeneration.


The technology describes the composition of small molecule compounds that are antagonists of the P2Y14 receptor. Also provided are methods of using the compounds, including a method of treating a disorder, such as inflammation, diabetes, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, a lipid disorder, obesity, a condition associated with metabolic syndrome, and asthma, and a method of antagonizing P2Y14 receptor activity in a cell.

A method to label heparan sulfate proteoglycan in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells

Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) is a group of lipid-anchored proteoglycans, engaged in a variety of key biological functions on cell surface. HSPG-mediated endocytosis of neurotoxic protein aggregates has been linked to aging related neurodegenerative diseases. Labeling HSPG is a promising technique to trace cell profile in cell research, monitor its trafficking in live cells and in tissues. Researchers at the NIDDK have discovered a method in which a positively charged fluorescent protein binds specifically to HSPG on cell surface.

Potent Nucleotide Inhibitors of Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase (CD73)

These small molecules are novel nucleotide derivatives, containing either a purine or pyrimidine nucleobase, that competitively block the enzyme CD73, also known as ecto-5'-nucleotidase. This enzyme converts extracellular AMP (not a potent activator of adenosine receptors) to adenosine (the native activator of 4 subtypes of adenosine receptors. CD73 inhibitors are being used, in clinical trials and preclinical research, in conjunction with cancer immunotherapy.