Assay for Predicting the Time of Onset of Niemann-Pick Disease Type C (NPC)

Niemann-Pick Disease, type C (NPC) is a rare, autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative disease. Approximately 95% of patients with NPC have mutations in NPC1, a gene implicated in intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Mutation of NPC1 causes intracellular accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in late endosomal/lysosomal structures and marked accumulation of glycosphingolipids, especially in neuronal tissue. Thus, NPC patients generally present with hepatosplenomegaly (enlargement of liver and spleen) and neurological degeneration.

Monoclonal Antibodies Against Bacillus Anthracis Antigens

Anthrax, whether resulting from natural or bioterrorist-associated exposure, is a constant threat to human health. Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. It is surrounded by a polypeptide capsule of poly-gamma-D-glutamic acid (gamma-D-PGA), which is essential for virulence, is poorly immunogenic and has anti-phagocytic properties. Antibodies to the capsule have been shown to enhance phagocytosis and killing of encapsulated bacilli.

Method to Reduce the Bias in the Mean and Variance of Indices of Water Diffusion Anisotropy as Measured by Diffusion Tensor MRI

This invention describes several novel MRI "stains" to measure and display water diffusion anisotropy data obtained by diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI). One problem that this invention overcomes is that it significantly reduces the statistical bias in the mean and variance of the measured anisotropy of water diffusion caused by background noise in the MR images. These benefits are achieved by exploiting the idea that fiber tracts exhibiting diffusion anisotropy vary continuously in most regions.

Transgenic ZP2 Mouse Model Produces Eggs That Bind to Human Sperm Protein

Fertilizing sperm bind to an extracellular coat surrounding mammalian eggs called zona pellucida. Depending on the species, the zona pellucida is composed of ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, and/or ZP4 proteins. Recent studies show that sperm successfully adhere to the zona pellucida surface when ZP2 is intact. In contrast, when ZP2 has been proteolytically cleaved, sperm binding is disrupted.

Moraxella Catarrhalis Lipooligosaccharide Based Conjugate Vaccines for the Prevention of Otitis Media and Respiratory Infections

Moraxella catarrhalis is one of the three leading causative agents of otitis media in children. This is due in part to the current immunizations of children with Streptococcus pneumoniae polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines to prevent otitis media. The proportion of otitis media caused by pneumococcal strains covered by the vaccines have decreased while those caused by Moraxella catarrhalis and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae have significantly increased.

Monoclonal Antibodies That React With the Capsule of <i>Bacillus anthracis</i>

Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax and is surrounded by a polypeptide capsule of poly-gamma-D-glutamic acid (gammaDPGA). gammaDPGA is poorly immunogenic and has antiphagocytic properties. The bacterial capsule is essential for virulence. Antibodies to the capsule have been shown to enhance phagocytosis and killing of encapsulated bacilli. These antibodies in combination with antibodies that neutralize the toxins of B. anthracis could provide enhanced protection by their dual antibacterial and antitoxic activities.

Personalized Tumor Vaccine and Use Thereof for Cancer Immunotherapy

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) vastly improved the outcome of various advanced cancers; however, many are less likely to respond to single-agent ICI. Tumors with low T-cell infiltration are "immunologically cold" and less likely to respond to single-agent ICI therapy. This diminished response is presumably due to the lack of neoantigens necessary to activate an adaptive immune response. On the other hand, an "immunologically hot" tumor with high T-cell infiltration has an active anti-tumor immune response following ICI treatment.

Tempol as a Therapeutic to Treat Covid-19 Via Inhibition of Viral Replication

Despite several partially effective prophylactic vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 exist, patients worldwide still succumb to COVID-19. New therapeutics to treat this disease are still needed.  Upon host invasion, a critical step in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is intracellular replication of SARS-CoV-2 before viral particles invade nearby healthy cells. This triggers an extreme inflammatory response that may lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or transmission to another host. Therefore, therapeutics that can successfully curb the replication of SARS-CoV-2 are imperative.