Novel Antiviral —<em>Griffithsin</em> Derived from Algae—for Prophylaxis or Treatment of Rabies Infection

Rabies virus (RABV) infection leads to fatal encephalitis—inflammation of the brain—if left untreated. Millions of people survive RABV infection each year due to timely administration of post-exposure treatment, however, nearly 60,000 people die from rabies each year according to the World Health Organization. Obstacles to timely treatment for RABV infection include the high cost and burdensome storage requirements (i.e., refrigeration) of current post-exposure treatments (i.e., rabies immunoglobulin (RIG)).

On-demand HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis

According to World Health Organization statistics, 1.7 million people became newly infected with HIV in 2019. Daily PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) with the combination of emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TAF) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is highly effective in preventing HIV infection. However, many people can find it challenging to adhere to a daily pill schedule and thus, may not fully benefit from PrEP.

Hybridomas to Human Immunoglobulins for SARS-CoV-2 Diagnostics and Additional Indications

Immunoglobulins play a key role in the immune system. CDC has developed and tested hybridoma cell lines (monoclonal antibody (mAb) clones) for human IgG and other immunoglobulins. The mAbs generated from those hybridomas could be used as a reagent (second Ab) of anti-human immunoglobins in a diagnostic assay for SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), the virus that causes COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) and other assays that detect antigen specific antibodies from human sera.

Diagnostic Assay to Detect Group C Rotavirus in Humans and Animals—Monoclonal Antibody-based ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay)

Rotaviruses cause severe gastroenteritis in humans and animals globally. Currently, there are eight known serogroups (A-H) of rotaviruses. Group C rotavirus (GpC RV) causes sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute diarrhea in children and adults worldwide. GpC RV is also associated with diarrhea in swine. Currently, no simple and reliable diagnostic test exists for GpC RV, so disease prevalence remains unknown.

Air-bubble Cushioning Application to Improve Shock Absorption Performance of Construction and Industrial Helmets

Helmets are used to protect against traumatic brain injury (TBI) in construction. Over time, helmets will experience cumulative structural damage with impacts at repeated magnitudes greater than their endurance limits. Despite the outstanding shock absorption performances of air cushions in many applications (e.g., air beds, shoes, seat cushions, and other ergonomic designs), air bubble cushioning has not been used in construction helmets thus far.

Monoclonal Antibody that Detects a Subclass of Dog IgG—for Diagnostic and Research Applications

CDC and collaborating researchers have developed a new monoclonal antibody that recognizes canine IgG (likely IgG4 subclass). This anti-dog IgG reagent could be used to detect antibody reactions to a variety of antigens and has potential use in a wide variety of diagnostic or research applications.

Monoclonal Antibodies for Detection of Rabies Virus Antigen and Confirmatory Rabies Diagnosis

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), rabies causes greater than 59,000 deaths every year in over 150 countries as of 2017. A rapid and reliable diagnostic test for rabies is critical for prophylaxis considerations in humans bitten by animals as well as for basic surveillance and animal rabies control programs. The World Organization of Animal Health (OIE) and WHO Expert Committee on Rabies recently approved the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (DRIT) for rabies diagnostics.

Stable Human Cell Lines Expressing Flavivirus Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) for Vaccine, Biologics, and Diagnostic Development

Flaviviruses such as Zika virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus cause widespread illness and death throughout the world. Typically, flaviviruses get transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes and ticks.

Monoclonal Antibodies Against Coxiella burnetii, the Cause of Q Fever for Diagnostic Development

Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii), the bacterium that causes Q fever, gets transmitted by inhalation and remains extremely stable in the environment. It has a very low infectious dose (very few bacteria can cause illness), making it a potential agent for bioterrorism. These factors have led to inclusion of C. burnetii on the Health and Human Services list of Select Agents. Cattle, sheep, and goats commonly get infected with C. burnetii. People, especially those who handle farm animals, can become exposed to C. burnetii by breathing in dust contaminated from infected animal body fluids.

Simian T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Strain Type 3 (STLV-3) Subtype D Variant, a Highly Divergent STLV-3, for Development of Diagnostics, Therapeutics, Vaccines and Research Tools

Simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLV) are nonhuman primate retroviruses closely related to the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV). Types I, II, and III of HTLV have been found in humans and are believed to have originated from cross-species transmission of STLV from infected nonhuman primates. The HTLV viruses are known to cause leukemia, lymphoma, and neurological disorders.